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Mobile's city commission form of government was challenged and finally overturned in in City of Mobile v.
Bolden , which was remanded by the United States Supreme Court to the district court. Finding that the city had adopted a commission form of government in and at-large positions with discriminatory intent, the court proposed that the three members of the city commission should be elected from single-member districts , likely ending their division of executive functions among them.
Mobile's state legislative delegation in finally enacted a mayor-council form of government, with seven members elected from single-member districts.
This was approved by voters. Since the change to single-member districts, more women and African Americans were elected to the council than under the at-large system.
Beginning in the late s, newly elected mayor Mike Dow and the city council began an effort termed the "String of Pearls Initiative" to make Mobile into a competitive city.
Mobile is located in the southwestern corner of the U. Mobile has a number of notable historic neighborhoods. Mobile's geographical location on the Gulf of Mexico provides a mild subtropical climate Köppen Cfa , with hot, humid summers and mild, rainy winters.
A study by WeatherBill, Inc. Snow is rare in Mobile, with its last snowfall on December 8, ,  before this, its last snow was nearly four years earlier, on January 27, Mobile is occasionally affected by major tropical storms and hurricanes.
The storm caused tremendous damage to Mobile and the surrounding area. Mobile suffered millions of dollars in damage from Hurricane Katrina on August 29, , which damaged much of the Gulf Coast cities.
A storm surge of In late December , the city suffered two tornado hits. On December 25, , at 4: The path took the tornado into Midtown , causing damage or destruction to at least structures.
The path taken through the city was just a short distance east of the path taken days earlier, on December 20, by an EF1 tornado which had touched down near Davidson High School and taken a path ending in Prichard.
Mobile's French and Spanish colonial history has given it a culture distinguished by French, Spanish, Creole, African and Catholic heritage, in addition to later British and American influences.
It is distinguished from all other cities in the state of Alabama. The annual Carnival celebration is perhaps the best example of its differences.
Mobile is the birthplace of the celebration of Mardi Gras in the United States and has the oldest celebration, dating to the early 18th century during the French colonial period.
Carnival in Mobile evolved over the course of years from a beginning as a sedate French Catholic tradition into the mainstream multi-week celebration that today bridges a spectrum of cultures.
The Carnival season has expanded throughout the late fall and winter: The next day is Ash Wednesday and the beginning of Lent , the day penitential season before Easter.
In Mobile, locals often use the term Mardi Gras as a shorthand to refer to the entire Carnival season. During the Carnival season; the mystic societies build colorful floats and parade throughout downtown.
Masked society members toss small gifts, known as 'throws,' to parade spectators. Carnival was first celebrated in Mobile in when colonial French Catholic settlers carried out their traditional celebration at the Old Mobile Site , prior to the relocation of the city to the current site.
In Mobile's Cowbellion de Rakin Society was the first formally organized and masked mystic society in the United States to celebrate with a parade.
Carnival celebrations in Mobile were canceled during the American Civil War. In Joe Cain revived the Mardi Gras parades when he paraded through the city streets on Fat Tuesday while costumed as a fictional Chickasaw chief named Slacabamorinico.
He celebrated the day in front of the occupying Union Army troops. Founded in , the Conde Explorers in were the first integrated Mardi Gras society to parade in downtown Mobile.
The society has about a hundred members and welcomes men and women of all races. In addition to the parade and ball, the Conde Explorers hold several parties throughout the year.
Its members also perform volunteer work. The National African American Archives and Museum features the history of African-American participation in Mardi Gras, authentic artifacts from the era of slavery, and portraits and biographies of famous African Americans.
The Mobile Municipal Archives contains the extant records of the City of Mobile, dating from the city's creation as a municipality by the Mississippi Territory in The majority of the original records of Mobile's colonial history, spanning the years through , are housed in Paris, London, Seville , and Madrid.
It features handwritten manuscripts and published materials that are available for use in genealogical research.
The Mobile Public Library system serves Mobile and consists of eight branches across Mobile County; its large local history and genealogy division is housed in a facility next to the newly restored and enlarged Ben May Main Library on Government Street.
The Mobile Museum of Art features permanent exhibits that span several centuries of art and culture.
Hearin Gallery contemporary works. The Centre for the Living Arts is an organization that operates the historic Saenger Theatre and Space , a contemporary art gallery.
The Saenger Theatre opened in as a movie palace. Today it is a performing arts center and serves as a small concert venue for the city.
The Mobile Civic Center contains three facilities under one roof. It is the primary concert venue for the city and hosts a wide variety of events.
It is home to the Mobile Opera and the Mobile Ballet. The Mobile Theatre Guild is a nonprofit community theatre that has served the city since The group was named in honor of the famous comedic actor Joe Jefferson , who spend part of his teenage years in Mobile.
The Players debuted their first production on December 17, The group began doing summer camps in , expanded to a year-round facility in and recently moved into the Azalea City Center for the Arts, a community of drama, music, art, photography, and dance teachers.
The Mobile Arts Council is an umbrella organization for the arts in Mobile. It was founded in as a project of the Junior League of Mobile with the mission to increase cooperation among artistic and cultural organizations in the area and to provide a forum for problems in art, music, theater, and literature.
Mobile is home to a variety of museums. It features artifacts and resources that chronicle the long history of medicine in Mobile.
It features permanent and traveling exhibits, an IMAX dome theater, a digital 3D virtual theater, and a hands-on chemistry laboratory.
It houses the Estuarium, an aquarium which illustrates the four habitats of the Mobile Bay ecosystem: Mobile has more than 45 public parks within its limits, with some that are of special note.
It serves as the official welcome center and a colonial-era living history museum. Later architectural styles found in the city include the various Victorian types, shotgun types, Colonial Revival , Tudor Revival , Spanish Colonial Revival , Beaux-Arts and many others.
The city currently has nine major historic districts: Mobile has a number of historic structures in the city, including numerous churches and private homes.
The Sodality Chapel and St. Joseph's Chapel at Spring Hill College are two historic churches on that campus.
The Washington Firehouse No. The Hunter House is an example of the Italianate style and was built by a successful 19th-century African American businesswoman.
The Shepard House is a good example of the Queen Anne style. The city has several historic cemeteries that were established shortly after the colonial era.
They replaced the colonial Campo Santo , of which no trace remains. It contains plots for the Brothers of the Sacred Heart , Little Sisters of the Poor , Sisters of Charity , and Sisters of Mercy , in addition to many other historically significant burials.
Sha'arai Shomayim is the older of the two. The United States Census determined that there were , people residing within the city limits of Mobile. Metropolitan Mobile is estimated to have a population of , in The census indicated that there were 78, households, out of which 21, had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28, were married couples living together, 17, had a female householder with no husband present, 3, had a male householder with no wife present, and 30, were non-families.
The age distribution of the population in consisted of 6. Since the government of Mobile has consisted of a mayor and a seven-member city council.
A supermajority of five votes is required to conduct council business. This form of city government was chosen by the voters after the previous form of government, which had three city commissioners, each elected at-large, was ruled in to substantially dilute the minority vote and violate the Voting Rights Act in Bolden v.
The three at-large commissioners each required a majority vote to win. Due to appeals, the case took time to reach settlement and establishment of a new electoral system.
Outlaw , who served his second term as mayor from — His first term had been under the old system, from — Mike Dow defeated Outlaw in the election; he was re-elected, serving as mayor for four terms, from — His "The String of Pearls" initiative, a series of projects designed to stimulate redevelopment of the city's core, is credited with reviving much of downtown Mobile.
Upon his retirement, Dow endorsed Sam Jones as his successor. Sam Jones was elected in as the first African-American mayor of Mobile.
He was re-elected for a second term in without opposition. He ran for a third term in but was defeated by Sandy Stimpson. Stimpson took office on November 4, and was re-elected on August 22, As of November , the seven-member city council is made up of Fredrick Richardson, Jr.
Small from District 3, John C. It was founded in to identify, challenge, and educate future leaders. Mobile also has a large number of private schools, most of them parochial in nature.
Many belong to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile. Notable private Protestant institutions include St.
The University of South Alabama is a public, doctoral -level university established in Faulkner University is a four-year private Church of Christ -affiliated university based in Montgomery, Alabama.
The Mobile campus was established in and offers bachelor's degrees in Business Administration, Management of Human Resources, and Criminal Justice.
Spring Hill College , chartered in , was the first Catholic college in the southeastern United States and is the third oldest Jesuit college in the country.
The University of Mobile is a four-year private Baptist-affiliated university in the neighboring city of Prichard that was founded in Bishop State Community College , founded in , is a public, historically African American , community college.
Bishop State has four campuses in Mobile and offers a wide array of associate degrees. Several post-secondary, vocational -type institutions have a campus in Mobile.
Mobile serves the central Gulf Coast as a regional center for medicine, with over physicians and dentists.
There are four major medical centers within the city limits. Mobile Infirmary Medical Center has beds and is the largest nonprofit hospital in the state.
It was founded in Providence Hospital has beds. It was founded in by the Daughters of Charity from Emmitsburg, Maryland.
Its roots go back to with the old city-owned Mobile City Hospital and associated medical school. A teaching hospital, it has Mobile's only level I trauma center and regional burn center.
Springhill Medical Center, with beds, was founded in It is Mobile's only for-profit facility. Additionally, the University of South Alabama operates the University of South Alabama Children's and Women's Hospital with beds, dedicated exclusively to the care of women and minors.
The center is home to the first academic cancer research center in the central Gulf Coast region. Mobile Infirmary Medical Center operated Infirmary West, formerly Knollwood Hospital, with acute care beds, but closed the facility at the end of October due to declining revenues.
BayPointe Hospital and Children's Residential Services, with beds, is the only psychiatric hospital in the city. It houses a residential unit for children, an acute unit for children and adolescents, and an age-segregated involuntary hospital unit for adults undergoing evaluation ordered by the Mobile Probate Court.
The city has a broad array of outpatient surgical centers, emergency clinics, home health care services, assisted-living facilities and skilled nursing facilities.
Aerospace, steel, ship building, retail, services, construction, medicine, and manufacturing are Mobile's major industries.
After having economic decline for several decades, Mobile's economy began to rebound in the late s. Between and roughly 13, new jobs were created as 87 new companies were founded and existing companies were expanded.
Defunct companies that had been founded or based in Mobile included Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding Company , Delchamps , and Gayfers.
Mobile's Alabama State Docks underwent the largest expansion in its history in the early 21st century. Doing business as BAE Systems Southeast Shipyards , the company continues to operate the site as a full-service shipyard, employing approximately workers with plans to expand.
It was planned to employ up roughly 1, full-time workers when fully operational. Construction began with a groundbreaking ceremony on April 8, , with it becoming operable by and producing up to 50 aircraft per year by On October 16, , Airbus announced a partnership with Bombardier Aerospace , taking over a majority share of the Bombardier CSeries airliner program.
As a result of this partnership, Airbus plans to open an assembly line for CSeries aircraft in Mobile, particularly to serve the US market.
This effort may allow the companies to circumvent high import tariffs on the CSeries family. It was originally projected to eventually employ 2, people.
The facility became operational in July The company put both its carbon mill in Calvert and a steel slab-making unit in Rio de Janeiro up for sale in May , citing rising production costs and a worldwide decrease in demand.
According to Mobile's Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city during were: Local airline passengers are served by the Mobile Regional Airport , with direct connections to four major hub airports.
These converge at the Port of Mobile, which provides intermodal freight transport service to companies engaged in importing and exporting.
Two major interstate highways and a spur converge in Mobile. Interstate 10 runs northeast to southwest across the city while Interstate 65 starts in Mobile at Interstate 10 and runs north.
Interstate connects to Interstate 65 north of the city in Prichard and joins Interstate 10 in downtown Mobile.
Interstate 10 leaves downtown through the George Wallace Tunnel under the river and then over the bay across the Jubilee Parkway to Spanish Fort and Daphne.
Mobile's public transportation is the Wave Transit System which features buses with 18 fixed routes and neighborhood service.
Baylinc operates Monday through Friday. Mobile is served by several taxi and limousine services. The city was a home port for cruise ships from Carnival Cruise Lines.
This cessation of cruise service left the city with an annual debt service of around two million dollars related to the terminal.
The four night cruises will visit Cozumel, Mexico while the five night cruises will additionally visit Costa Maya or Progreso.
Currently, she is scheduled to sail thru April Although Carnival Cruise Lines did not operate from Mobile after the Carnival Fantasy left in , the Carnival Triumph was towed into the port following a crippling engine room fire.
Mobile's Press-Register is Alabama's oldest active newspaper, first published in Mod Mobilian is a website with a focus on cultured living in Mobile.
Mobile is served locally by a number of over-the-air television stations. It ranked 61st in the nation for the —08 television season.
Fourteen FM radio stations transmit from Mobile: Nine AM radio stations transmit from Mobile: The content ranges from Christian Contemporary to Hip hop to Top Mobile is the home of Ladd—Peebles Stadium.
The football stadium opened in With a current capacity of 40,, Ladd—Peebles Stadium is the fourth-largest stadium in the state.
It features opponents from the Sun Belt and Mid-American conferences. The top graduating high school seniors from their respective states compete each June.
The University of South Alabama in Mobile established a football team in , which went undefeated in its inaugural season. It currently plays at Ladd—Peebles Stadium.
South Alabama basketball is a respected mid-major, regularly competing for the Sun Belt Conference championship. They play their home games at the Mitchell Center.
The public Mobile Tennis Center includes over 50 courts, all lighted and hard-court. The Falls course was recently named the best par 3 course in America.
Mobile is home to the Azalea Trail Run , which races through historic midtown and downtown Mobile. This 10k run has been an annual event since Mobile has registered sister city arrangements with the following cities: Also there is the older Bankhead Tunnel that also goes under the Mobile River.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. City in Alabama, United States. Late December North American storm complex.
Mardi Gras in Mobile, Alabama and Mystic society. List of mayors of Mobile, Alabama. Media in Mobile, Alabama.
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Retrieved Jul 7, Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 19, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved March 24, Archived from the original on January 1, Retrieved May 15, Oxford University Press, Calendar Year " PDF.
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The Story of Mobile , page The Fort Barrancas Story. Archived from the original on November 3, University of Alabama Press. The Transportation Revolution, Dattel, "Cotton in a Global Economy: The New History of Alabama's first city.
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Mobile Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original PDF on December 1, Retrieved November 30, National Register of Historic Places.
National Register Information System. This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile communication devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between when first law was passed, through 1 December The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated e.
In , an estimated pedestrians were injured in the US while using a cellphone and some jurisdictions have attempted to ban pedestrians from using their cellphones.
The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent [ when? Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health.
A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals and in humans. The majority of this research shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to mobile phones and harmful biological effects in humans.
This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from mobile phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive.
Other digital wireless systems , such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. On 31 May , the World Health Organization stated that mobile phone use may possibly represent a long-term health risk,   classifying mobile phone radiation as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" after a team of scientists reviewed studies on mobile phone safety.
Some recent [ when? Lennart Hardell and other authors of a meta-analysis of 11 studies from peer-reviewed journals concluded that cell phone usage for at least ten years "approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same 'ipsilateral' side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use".
In May , preliminary findings of a long-term study by the U. A study by the London School of Economics found that banning mobile phones in schools could increase pupils' academic performance, providing benefits equal to one extra week of schooling per year.
The average user replaces their mobile phone every 11 to 18 months,  and the discarded phones then contribute to electronic waste.
Mobile phone manufacturers within Europe are subject to the WEEE directive , and Australia has introduced a mobile phone recycling scheme.
According to the Federal Communications Commission , one out of three robberies involve the theft of a cellular phone.
All mobile phones have a unique identifier called IMEI. Anyone can report their phone as lost or stolen with their Telecom Carrier, and the IMEI would be blacklisted with a central registry.
There are, however, a number of ways to circumvent a blacklist. One method is to send the phone to a country where the telecom carriers are not required to implement the blacklisting and sell it there,  another involves altering the phone's IMEI number.
Demand for metals used in mobile phones and other electronics fuelled the Second Congo War , which claimed almost 5.
The profits from the minerals finance the bloodiest conflict since the second world war; the war has lasted nearly 20 years and has recently flared up again.
For the last 15 years, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been a major source of natural resources for the mobile phone industry.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Cell Phone film. For the film, see Handphone film. For the mobile personal computer, see Smartphone.
History of mobile phones. Cellular network and WiFi. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. List of digital distribution platforms for mobile devices.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Statistics till mid is needed for some parts of this section. List of best-selling mobile phones and List of mobile phone makers by country. Mobile banking and Mobile payment.
Branchless banking and Contactless payment. Cellphone surveillance and Mobile phone tracking. Mobile phones and driving safety and Texting while driving.
Mobile phone radiation and health. Nomophobia and Mobile phone overuse. Mobile phone use in schools. Telecommunication portal Internet portal.
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Banking Marketing advertising campaigns Payments contactless donating Ticketing. Bar Flip Phablet Slider Smartwatch.
Carrier IQ Use restrictions while driving Legality of recording by civilians Photography and the law Telephone tapping Texting while driving Mobile phones in prison.
List of mobile phone generations. Landline Mobile phone Satellite phone Photophone. Missed call Misdialed call Nuisance call Phone tag. Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line.
Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division. Retrieved from " https: Mobile phones Telecommunications-related introductions in s fads and trends Embedded systems Mobile telecommunications Mobile telecommunication services New media Telephony Videotelephony Radio technology.
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